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Name: Monito del Monte
Status: Thought to be extinct until its rediscovery.
Information: A remarkable, diminutive marsupial thought to have been extinct until one was discovered in a thicket of Chilean bamboo in the southern Andes.
Thought to exist: 55 million years ago.
Reference: http://historysevidenceofdinosaursandmen.weebly.com/living-fossils.html
The fossilised ankle and ear bones are those of Australias earliest known marsupial, Djarthia, a primitive mouse-like creature that lived 55 million years ago. ..a new study in the journal PLoS ONE [http://www.plosone.org/] has confirmed that Djarthia is also a primitive relative of the small marsupial known as the Monito del Monte - or little mountain monkey - from the dense humid forests of Chile and Argentina.
Reference: http://www.create.unsw.edu.au/news/2008-03-25_monito.html
The monito del monte, Spanish for ‘little bush monkey’, named after its monkey-like partially prehensile tail, is a diminutive marsupial native to South America in the Valdivian temperate rain forests of the southern Andes (Chile and Argentina). It is the only extant species in the ancient order of Microbiotheria. ...Genetic studies show that this species retains the most primitive characteristics of its group, and thus is regarded as a “living fossil.”
reference: http://www.eartharchives.org/articles/scientists-uncover-two-new-species-of-elusive-south-american-marsupial/

Name: Monito del Monte
Status: Thought to be extinct until it's rediscovery.
Information: A remarkable, diminutive marsupial thought to have been extinct until one was discovered in a thicket of Chilean bamboo in the southern Andes.
Thought to exist: 55 million years ago.
Reference: historysevidenceofdinosaursandmen.weebly.com/living-fossils.html
"The fossilised ankle and ear bones are those of Australia's earliest known marsupial, Djarthia, a primitive mouse-like creature that lived 55 million years ago. ..a new study in the journal PLoS ONE [www.plosone.org/] has confirmed that Djarthia is also a primitive relative of the small marsupial known as the Monito del Monte - or "little mountain monkey" - from the dense humid forests of Chile and Argentina."
Reference: www.create.unsw.edu.au/news/2008-03-25_monito.html
"The monito del monte, Spanish for ‘little bush monkey’, named after its monkey-like partially prehensile tail, is a diminutive marsupial native to South America in the Valdivian temperate rain forests of the southern Andes (Chile and Argentina). It is the only extant species in the ancient order of Microbiotheria. ...Genetic studies show that this species retains the most primitive characteristics of its group, and thus is regarded as a “living fossil.”"
reference: www.eartharchives.org/articles/scientists-uncover-two-new-species-of-elusive-south-american-marsu...
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Elephantids were once among the most widespread megafaunal families. However, only three species of this family exist today. To reconstruct their evolutionary history, we generated 14 genomes from living and extinct elephantids and from the American mastodon. While previous studies examined only simple bifurcating relationships, we found that gene flow between elephantid species was common in the past. Straight-tusked elephants descend from a mixture of three ancestral populations related to the ancestor of African elephants, woolly mammoths, and present-day forest elephants. ..interspecies hybridization has been a recurrent feature ....Members of the family Elephantidae, known as elephantids, first appeared in Africa 5 to 10 Mya and are the only surviving family of the order Proboscidea (1, 2). Although many fossil species have been identified, high levels of within-taxon variation have complicated the delineation of species boundaries (1⇓–3). Living elephantids include two species of the genus Loxodonta, the forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) and the savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana), which are restricted to Africa, and one of the genus Elephas, which is endemic to Asia (Elephas maximus). Extinct mammoths (genus Mammuthus) comprise several species, of which the once circumpolar woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) survived in small isolated island populations well into the Holocene until ∼4,000 y ago (4, 5) while the more temperate North American Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) disappeared by the end of the last ice age ∼11,000 y ago (6, 7). Straight-tusked elephants (genus Palaeoloxodon) potentially survived as late as ∼50,000 to 35,000 y ago (8) and have been conventionally grouped within Elephas (3, 9), but recent genomic evidence from European straight-tusked elephants (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) over 100,000 y old showed that they were on average more closely related to forest elephants than to any other extant species and led to the suggestion that they were an ancient sister group of modern African forest elephants (10). ... Our results in elephantids thus add to the growing weight of evidence in favor of the view that capacity for hybridization is the norm rather than the exception in many mammalian species
Reference: https://www.pnas.org/content/115/11/E2566
It was previously thought there were two living species of elephants: the African, and the Asian. However, this research suggests that there are actually three: the Asian elephant, the forest-inhabiting African elephant, and the savanna-roaming African elephant.1 ...The two lineages are known to hybridize and produce fertile offspring in local populations today! The paper even gave hybridization as the reason for not previously recognizing the forest and savanna types as distinct.
Reference: https://creation.com/elephant-genome
Stegodontidae is an extinct family of proboscideans that was endemic to Africa and Asia from the Miocene (15.97 mya)[1] to the Late Pleistocene, with some studies suggesting that they survived into the Holocene in China (until as recently as 4.1 thousand years ago),[2] although this is disputed
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammoth

"Elephantids were once among the most widespread megafaunal families. However, only three species of this family exist today. To reconstruct their evolutionary history, we generated 14 genomes from living and extinct elephantids and from the American mastodon. While previous studies examined only simple bifurcating relationships, we found that gene flow between elephantid species was common in the past. Straight-tusked elephants descend from a mixture of three ancestral populations related to the ancestor of African elephants, woolly mammoths, and present-day forest elephants. ..interspecies hybridization has been a recurrent feature ....Members of the family Elephantidae, known as elephantids, first appeared in Africa 5 to 10 Mya and are the only surviving family of the order Proboscidea (1, 2). Although many fossil species have been identified, high levels of within-taxon variation have complicated the delineation of species boundaries (1⇓–3). Living elephantids include two species of the genus Loxodonta, the forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) and the savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana), which are restricted to Africa, and one of the genus Elephas, which is endemic to Asia (Elephas maximus). Extinct mammoths (genus Mammuthus) comprise several species, of which the once circumpolar woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) survived in small isolated island populations well into the Holocene until ∼4,000 y ago (4, 5) while the more temperate North American Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) disappeared by the end of the last ice age ∼11,000 y ago (6, 7). Straight-tusked elephants (genus Palaeoloxodon) potentially survived as late as ∼50,000 to 35,000 y ago (8) and have been conventionally grouped within Elephas (3, 9), but recent genomic evidence from European straight-tusked elephants (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) over 100,000 y old showed that they were on average more closely related to forest elephants than to any other extant species and led to the suggestion that they were an ancient sister group of modern African forest elephants (10). ... Our results in elephantids thus add to the growing weight of evidence in favor of the view that capacity for hybridization is the norm rather than the exception in many mammalian species"
Reference: www.pnas.org/content/115/11/E2566
"It was previously thought there were two living species of elephants: the African, and the Asian. However, this research suggests that there are actually three: the Asian elephant, the forest-inhabiting African elephant, and the savanna-roaming African elephant.1 ...The two lineages are known to hybridize and produce fertile offspring in local populations today! The paper even gave hybridization as the reason for not previously recognizing the forest and savanna types as distinct."
Reference: creation.com/elephant-genome
"Stegodontidae is an extinct family of proboscideans that was endemic to Africa and Asia from the Miocene (15.97 mya)[1] to the Late Pleistocene, with some studies suggesting that they survived into the Holocene in China (until as recently as 4.1 thousand years ago),[2] although this is disputed"
Reference: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammoth
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Kangaroos belong to the superfamily Macropodoidea, which also includes wallabies. This superfamily has 62 members native to Australia and Papua New Guinea, ranging in size from those who weigh as little as 2 pounds to about 200 pounds. Six kangaroo species are the big boys of this family, although a new, and slightly smaller, kangaroo family member was discovered in Papua New Guinea in 1990. The wallaroo, a crossbreed of wallaby and kangaroo, is another relative.
Reference: https://animals.mom.me/different-kinds-kangaroos-3196.html
Macropodidae (Kangaroo kind)
Size: head and body 100 cm; tail varies, but shorter than head and body; females slightly smaller
This family includes 65 species placed in 11 genera (Wilson and Reeder 2005). This family is also characterized by a complex stomach. Hybrid data clearly connect three genera (Macropus, Thylogale, Wallabia; Gray 1972; VanGelder 1977).
Reference: https://answersingenesis.org/creation-science/baraminology/mammalian-ark-kinds/?fbclid=IwAR0-bZDlh2ekrbCQtRBrO80yY7kScqplXEceTbVJlggX-0HN3A8PivhxEAw

'Kangaroos belong to the superfamily Macropodoidea, which also includes wallabies. This superfamily has 62 members native to Australia and Papua New Guinea, ranging in size from those who weigh as little as 2 pounds to about 200 pounds. Six kangaroo species are the big boys of this family, although a new, and slightly smaller, kangaroo family member was discovered in Papua New Guinea in 1990. The wallaroo, a crossbreed of wallaby and kangaroo, is another relative.'
Reference: animals.mom.me/different-kinds-kangaroos-3196.html
"Macropodidae (Kangaroo kind)
Size: head and body 100 cm; tail varies, but shorter than head and body; females slightly smaller
This family includes 65 species placed in 11 genera (Wilson and Reeder 2005). This family is also characterized by a complex stomach. Hybrid data clearly connect three genera (Macropus, Thylogale, Wallabia; Gray 1972; VanGelder 1977)."
Reference: answersingenesis.org/creation-science/baraminology/mammalian-ark-kinds/?fbclid=IwAR0-bZDlh2ekrbCQ...
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Natural bear hybrids and studies of few nuclear genes indicate that gene flow among bears may be more common than expected and not limited to polar and brown bears.
Reference: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep46487
Biologists agree that polar bears, brown bears, and black bears all descended from a prototype of the bear kind.
Reference: https://www.icr.org/article/circular-reasoning-polar-bear-origins/

"Natural bear hybrids and studies of few nuclear genes indicate that gene flow among bears may be more common than expected and not limited to polar and brown bears."
Reference: www.nature.com/articles/srep46487
"Biologists agree that polar bears, brown bears, and black bears all descended from a prototype of the bear kind."
Reference: www.icr.org/article/circular-reasoning-polar-bear-origins/
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Now Australian scientists have discovered that the platypus is significantly older than previously thought: it may have been around since 120 million years ago, meaning it lived alongside the dinosaurs.
Reference: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-01-22/fossil-suggests-platypus-lived-in-dinosaur-times/1019588
The Platypus is a bizarre looking Australian mammal, one of the few monotremes left in the world – a mammal that lays eggs.  When this strange looking creature, which can grow up to 50 centimetres long, was first studied by western scientists they thought the bill had been glued or sewn into place, few could believe that this animal was real and many dismissed drawings as total folly or an elaborate hoax.  However, this highly specialised freshwater mammal rather than being an oddity might just have remained unchanged for 120 million years.  This would make the humble Platypus one of the oldest kinds of mammal on the planet, with its origins now traced back to the middle of the Cretaceous.  ... a fossilised jaw under the study of Dr Tom Rich and his partner Professor Pat Vickers-Rich has been identified as belonging to a member of the Platypus family and as the jaw dates from 120 million years ago, this puts the little Platypus right in amongst the dinosaurs of the Cretaceous period. ...  Using a high resolution CT scanner in Texas the scientists discovered this ancient animal (named Teinolophos) had a large internal grove or canal along its jaw to help carry nerve fibres from the bill to the brain – just like a modern Platypus. ...The Platypus far from being some sort of accident of nature has proved itself to be a very capable survivor with the basic body plan remaining unchanged throughout the Age of Mammals. ...the Platypus still can be found in Victoria, inhabiting streams just a few miles inland from where the ancient fossilised Platypus jaw bones were found.
Reference: https://blog.everythingdinosaur.co.uk/blog/_archives/2008/01/23/3480544.html
If we remain faithful to the raw genome data, which suggest that the platypus is an amalgam of avian, reptilian, and mammalian features, then the evolutionary tree of life in its current form is wrong. The estimated time of origin of reptiles is 370 million years and of birds and mammals is 225 million years ago.  If the platypus is connected to reptiles, birds and mammals, then it should be found in strata 370-225 million years old, but the oldest platypus fossil is only about 120 million years old.
Reference: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=1SIl9Rmn9gwC&pg=PA196&lpg=PA196&dq=platypus+fossil+120+million+years+ago&source=bl&ots=2zo-ySewMu&sig=ACfU3U31MwV5GfwnsZjOUNDRc-A3rYsyEQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiCqrmXjqfgAhUQdCsKHepeCIo4ChDoATABegQICBAB#v=onepage&q=platypus%20fossil%20120%20million%20years%20ago&f=false
IMAGE: FOSSIL PLATYPUS
http://www.ctlab.geo.utexas.edu/platypuslarge/

"Now Australian scientists have discovered that the platypus is significantly older than previously thought: it may have been around since 120 million years ago, meaning it lived alongside the dinosaurs."
Reference: www.abc.net.au/news/2008-01-22/fossil-suggests-platypus-lived-in-dinosaur-times/1019588
"The Platypus is a bizarre looking Australian mammal, one of the few monotremes left in the world – a mammal that lays eggs. When this strange looking creature, which can grow up to 50 centimetres long, was first studied by western scientists they thought the bill had been glued or sewn into place, few could believe that this animal was real and many dismissed drawings as total folly or an elaborate hoax. However, this highly specialised freshwater mammal rather than being an oddity might just have remained unchanged for 120 million years. This would make the humble Platypus one of the oldest kinds of mammal on the planet, with its origins now traced back to the middle of the Cretaceous. ... a fossilised jaw under the study of Dr Tom Rich and his partner Professor Pat Vickers-Rich has been identified as belonging to a member of the Platypus family and as the jaw dates from 120 million years ago, this puts the little Platypus right in amongst the dinosaurs of the Cretaceous period. ... Using a high resolution CT scanner in Texas the scientists discovered this ancient animal (named Teinolophos) had a large internal grove or canal along its jaw to help carry nerve fibres from the bill to the brain – just like a modern Platypus. ...The Platypus far from being some sort of accident of nature has proved itself to be a very capable survivor with the basic body plan remaining unchanged throughout the Age of Mammals. ...the Platypus still can be found in Victoria, inhabiting streams just a few miles inland from where the ancient fossilised Platypus jaw bones were found."
Reference: blog.everythingdinosaur.co.uk/blog/_archives/2008/01/23/3480544.html
"If we remain faithful to the raw genome data, which suggest that the platypus is an amalgam of avian, reptilian, and mammalian features, then the evolutionary tree of life in it's current form is wrong. The estimated time of origin of reptiles is 370 million years and of birds and mammals is 225 million years ago. If the platypus is connected to reptiles, birds and mammals, then it should be found in strata 370-225 million years old, but the oldest platypus fossil is only about 120 million years old."
Reference: books.google.com.au/books?id=1SIl9Rmn9gwC&pg=PA196&lpg=PA196&dq=platypus+fossil+120+million+years...
IMAGE: FOSSIL PLATYPUS
www.ctlab.geo.utexas.edu/platypuslarge/
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Name: Hoatzin [Opisthocomus hoazin]
Status: Unchanged from its million year old fossil record.
Information: Also known as the Stinkbird, or Canje Pheasant, is a species of tropical bird found in swamps, riparian forest and mangrove of the Amazon and in South America. It is notable for having chicks that possess claws on two of their wing digits. This is a noisy species, with a variety of hoarse calls, including groans, croaks, hisses and grunts.
Thought to exist: 34 million years ago.
Reference: http://historysevidenceofdinosaursandmen.weebly.com/living-fossils.html
The one factoid that most people know about the Hoatzin is that its chicks possess obviously clawed fingers and use them in climbing. While it’s often stated or implied that this is a primitive feature that links the Hoatzin with Archaeopteryx and other Mesozoic theropods, the truth is that hand claws are actually widespread in modern birds and not at all unusual. ...We need to note to begin with that fossil hoatzins have been known for a while. In 1953, Miller (1953) named Hoazinoides magdalenae from the Middle Miocene of Colombia. It’s known from a partial skull that’s highly similar to that of the modern Opisthocomus but somewhat larger. I should also mention that an alleged hoatzin relative called Onychopteryx simpsoni (named for a partial tarsometatarsus) was reported from the Eocene of Argentina in 1971 (Cracraft 1971). However, the fossil concerned is so scrappy that few experts have been prepared to accept this as a valid hoatzin record. And then there’s Foro panarium from the Eocene of North America, described by Olson (1992) as superficially hoatzin-like. It’s possible that this bird (represented by fairly substantial remains, as you can see here) is allied with hoatzins... Mayr et al. (2011) now give us two additional fossil hoatzins. The first is named Hoazinavis lacustris and is known from a set of wing and chest bones, collected in 2008 from the Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene Tremembé Formation of São Paulo, Brazil. All of Hoazinavis’s bones are very similar to those of Opisthocomus... Then we come to the second hoatzin. It’s known from three coracoids and six humeri, all of which come from Lower Miocene sediments. .. [Namibiavis] definitely possesses distinctive hoatzin features (Mayr et al. 2011).  ...what little we know of Namibiavis suggests that it was, again, generally similar to Opisthocomus and presumably similar to it in flight abilities and perhaps in ecology and appearance.  
Reference: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/hoatzins-in-africa/
Image of young Hoatzin skeleton from:
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jmor.1050310307

"Name: Hoatzin [Opisthocomus hoazin]
Status: Unchanged from its "million year old" fossil record.
Information: Also known as the Stinkbird, or Canje Pheasant, is a species of tropical bird found in swamps, riparian forest and mangrove of the Amazon and in South America. It is notable for having chicks that possess claws on two of their wing digits. This is a noisy species, with a variety of hoarse calls, including groans, croaks, hisses and grunts.
Thought to exist: 34 million years ago."
Reference: historysevidenceofdinosaursandmen.weebly.com/living-fossils.html
"The one factoid that most people know about the Hoatzin is that its chicks possess obviously clawed fingers and use them in climbing. While it’s often stated or implied that this is a primitive feature that links the Hoatzin with Archaeopteryx and other Mesozoic theropods, the truth is that hand claws are actually widespread in modern birds and not at all unusual. ...We need to note to begin with that fossil hoatzins have been known for a while. In 1953, Miller (1953) named Hoazinoides magdalenae from the Middle Miocene of Colombia. It’s known from a partial skull that’s highly similar to that of the modern Opisthocomus but somewhat larger. I should also mention that an alleged hoatzin relative called Onychopteryx simpsoni (named for a partial tarsometatarsus) was reported from the Eocene of Argentina in 1971 (Cracraft 1971). However, the fossil concerned is so scrappy that few experts have been prepared to accept this as a valid hoatzin record. And then there’s Foro panarium from the Eocene of North America, described by Olson (1992) as superficially hoatzin-like. It’s possible that this bird (represented by fairly substantial remains, as you can see here) is allied with hoatzins... Mayr et al. (2011) now give us two additional fossil hoatzins. The first is named Hoazinavis lacustris and is known from a set of wing and chest bones, collected in 2008 from the Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene Tremembé Formation of São Paulo, Brazil. All of Hoazinavis’s bones are very similar to those of Opisthocomus... Then we come to the second hoatzin. It’s known from three coracoids and six humeri, all of which come from Lower Miocene sediments. .. [Namibiavis] definitely possesses distinctive hoatzin features (Mayr et al. 2011). ...what little we know of Namibiavis suggests that it was, again, generally similar to Opisthocomus and presumably similar to it in flight abilities and perhaps in ecology and appearance."
Reference: blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/hoatzins-in-africa/
Image of young Hoatzin skeleton from:
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jmor.1050310307
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An international team of scientists unearthed numerous fossils from eastern Australia dated from 300,000 years ago to roughly 4 million years ago that they now know belong to the Komodo dragon. When we compared these fossils to the bones of present-day Komodo dragons, they were identical, said researcher Scott Hocknull, a vertebrate paleontologist at the Queensland Museum in Australia.
Reference: https://www.livescience.com/9726-origin-komodo-dragon-revealed.html
(Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.[5], ...Fossils very similar to V. komodoensis have been found in Australia dating to greater than 3.8 million years ago, and its body size remained stable on Flores, one of the handful of Indonesian islands where it is currently found, over the last 900,000 years, a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the islands megafauna, and the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka [kiloannums].
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komodo_dragon
Image:  Fossil remains of the earliest Komodo dragon from the Pliocene of Australia next to the skull of a modern Komodo dragon (A, center). B-D: fragments of the upper mandible. E-F: fragments of the skull bones. G–H: quadrate bone . I–J. partial left mandible, with dotted lines illustrating the tooth sockets. Photograph: Hocknull et al., 2009. Dragons Paradise Lost:
Reference: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/may/17/here-be-dragons-the-million-year-journey-of-the-komodo-dragon

"An international team of scientists unearthed numerous fossils from eastern Australia dated from 300,000 years ago to roughly 4 million years ago that they now know belong to the Komodo dragon. "When we compared these fossils to the bones of present-day Komodo dragons, they were identical," said researcher Scott Hocknull, a vertebrate paleontologist at the Queensland Museum in Australia."
Reference: www.livescience.com/9726-origin-komodo-dragon-revealed.html
"(Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.[5], ...Fossils very similar to V. komodoensis have been found in Australia dating to greater than 3.8 million years ago, and its body size remained stable on Flores, one of the handful of Indonesian islands where it is currently found, over the last 900,000 years, "a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the island's megafauna, and the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka [kiloannums]."
Reference: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komodo_dragon
Image: "Fossil remains of the earliest Komodo dragon from the Pliocene of Australia next to the skull of a modern Komodo dragon (A, center). B-D: fragments of the upper mandible. E-F: fragments of the skull bones. G–H: quadrate bone . I–J. partial left mandible, with dotted lines illustrating the tooth sockets. Photograph: Hocknull et al., 2009. Dragon's Paradise Lost:"
Reference: www.theguardian.com/science/2017/may/17/here-be-dragons-the-million-year-journey-of-the-komodo-dr...
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Living Fossils are organisms that are alive today that resemble organisms from the fossil record. ...Elephant shrews are small, insect eating, mammals that have relatives that date from the Oligocene to modern day. Even though they have shrew in their name, they are not related to shrews. Elephant shrews live in all over Africa. There are four different species of Elephant shrews.
Reference: http://inaturalscience.blogspot.com/2012/06/living-fossils.html

"Living Fossils are organisms that are alive today that resemble organisms from the fossil record. ...Elephant shrews are small, insect eating, mammals that have relatives that date from the Oligocene to modern day. Even though they have "shrew" in their name, they are not related to shrews. Elephant shrews live in all over Africa. There are four different species of Elephant shrews."
Reference: inaturalscience.blogspot.com/2012/06/living-fossils.html
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